Monday, May 25, 2020

Images of organization - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1646 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Summary Chapter 2 of the book Images of Organization by Gareth Morgan focuses on todays organizations which operate like machines. The operations in an organization are predetermined and a high degree of precision is always exhibited. Organizations today have to adhere to a set program of activities where there are preset rules like time of arrival, break, departure as well as the bulk of work to be completed in a particular day. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Images of organization" essay for you Create order Operations have thus turned to be repetitive and mechanical with operations running for 24 hours. The employees working in this organization therefore are required to work as parts of the whole machine (organization). They have to adhere to major and minor instruction in their day to day operations making the procedures predetermined and repetitive. This mode of operation has both advantages and disadvantages. The strength of this approach can only be experienced where goals are fixed and where there is a compliant and eager workforce as well as a stable environment. Absence of such preconditions will always lead to dire consequences in mechanizing an organization. In the former, it forms the basis for effective operations (Morgan, 1998). However, the greatest challenge to using this approach of running operations in an organization is lack of flexibility. This means that introduction of new ideas and ways of doing things will always be very difficult and challenging. The chapter also provides a detailed account of the origin of mechanistic organization use of machines during the industrial revolution is highlighted. Notably, the author traced the use of mechanistic organization in military during the times of Frederick the great of Prussia (Morgan, 1998). Later, his ideas were borrowed and applied in organization and management. This timeline saw the development of various theories trying to incorporate the idea including Webers bureaucracy theory. Development of this theory received a significant boost from the contributions from scientific management and classical management theories. The chapter then wraps up with a highlight of the strengths and limitation of a mechanistic organization. How does education and skill levels impact labor in a mechanized organization? In a mechanized organization, there is a very high degree of specialization. This means that every employee expertly executed his duties in his respective area of work (division of labor). In this regard, people will excel in their areas of specialty at least over time. This renders education and skill levels quite inconsequential. This is because with time, every employee in his area of operation will gain the experience needed to face the challenges of that specific area. Again, the repetitive nature the operations make the employee more familiar with what is expected of him at that position. Personally, I feel that education and skills will only be relevant during the entry stage. Afterwards, the levels of the same will not impact on the quality of labor as the employee gets familiar with is expected of him. This underlies the functionality of machine which has a definite level of production. Is it inhumane to make people work an assembly line job? Definitely, its very inhumane to make people work in an assemble line. This is because besides the high pressure people are supposed to work under, they are often subject to physical punishment and abuse. This is because the supervisors expect one to work like a machine free of faults and very consistent. This is however a far cry of the human nature where man is not perfect. Once in a while flaws may occur which will consequently attract rebuttal. Again, people on the assembly line are denied a chance to live while on duty. This is because they are reduced to mere machines expected to perform so many tasks within a very short period of time. Morgan states that (28) Job cycles are often very short, with workers sometimes being asked to complete work involving seven or eight separate operations every forty or fifty seconds, seven or eight hours a day, fifty weeks a year. In other instances, strict requirements are put in place like zero defects which leaves workers straining to enjoy working. Workers emerge as the last priority and can best be portrayed as machines having human parts. Every employee along the assembly line can best be described as part of a big machine which is expected to work at a constant predetermined rate. This is negates the fact that these workers have a soul. Personally, I find making employees work in an assembly line very inhumane. Besides being overworked, they are denied a chance to enjoy what they do. Morgan asserts that majority of the people finds the job alienating or boring (Morgan, 1998). From another perspective, its utterly ignoring the fact that its men at work not machines. Why are sweat shops bad? Do they not provide jobs in needy economies? Despite providing jobs in the needy economies, sweatshops are bad because of the way they provide these jobs. Providing a job is one aspect and providing it in a humane manner is a different aspect altogether. In this regard, sweatshops will always be considered bad if they will not improve some of the areas which attract criticism. One of these areas is working hours where workers in these shops are forced to work for long hours sometimes even continuous 12 hours in a day. Another major source of criticism is wage level. Despite working for long hours, workers in these shops are paid very low wages. Their working conditions are a far cry of what can be termed as ideal. They are also known to seek cheap labor a craving which entices them to use child labor which has always tainted their image. Personally, I reckon that if the sweatshops can appreciate the dramatically changing condition under neoliberal globalization, their objective of providing jobs in needy economies will no longe r be considered as misguided. In this regard, aggressive measures should be taken to address the faulty areas like working conditions, wage level, working hours and child labor. Discuss the pros and cons of scientific management. Scientific management was developed by Frederick Taylor and was a solid foundation on which work design was built in the first half of the 20th century. Its principles still prevails today in various forms. This approach has its advantages and disadvantages in management. One of its advantages is that disagreements and conflicts are greatly reduces in the workplace. This is because the approach bestows a lot of control on the leaders. Employees have to do what they are instructed to do and if they feel that its not good to them, they are at liberty to leave. This facilitates a harmonious running of operations in the organization. This approach also ensures that there is quality production and minimal wastage due to the high levels of monitoring. This ultimately reduced the production costs. Again, it increases productivity as well as facilitating replacements of skilled workers with unskilled ones. The other advantage is that every operation is pre-planned thus eliminating delays and time wastage. This improves efficiency and effectiveness which is a target for all kind of organizations regardless of their scope. The effectiveness will consequently improve an organizations profitability. Scientific management is also very advantageous during recruitment because mangers will only be going for the individual who reflects the skills needed to perform a specific task. However, some disadvantages also accrue to this method of management. One of them is that it dehumanizes employees by failing to recognize their social life and their higher needs. They are reduced to mere slaves or machines. Again, their ideas which at times may be very vital are ignored causing demotivation. Its also a major cause of a high turnover rate because it does not appreciate employee variance. Employees are made to do the same thing repeatedly making it boring and alienating. Give an example of a mechanized organization that is not dehumanizing. I do not believe there is any mechanized organization which is not dehumanizing. This is because in any mechanized organization there must be factors which contribute to dehumanization. For example there must be repetition of same activities day in day out. There must also be high degree of adherence to rules as well as human rights issues. This can be well seen in the variety of mechanized organizations like Ford, Mac Donalds, Nike etc. How have labor laws and unions responded to automation? Labor unions are formed with the prime objective of enhancing economic status of the employees as well as improving their working conditions through bargaining collectively. The labor laws are also drafted to ensure that this end is well achieved. Automation goes against these objectives because its a leading cause of unemployment because it reduces the number of workers needed. This has always set the unions and its laws against it. Despite the benefits which come with automation, unions find it as a major threat to employment opportunities. To the union, automation means that some employees will be laid off and that is why they are opposed to it. Discuss mechanization of the government, bureaucracy, and its inhibiting nature A bureaucratic government can better be described as mechanized government. It is more or less similar to a mechanized organization. As the world today embraces democracy in various fronts, a mechanized government will have no room for democracy. This is because people will not be given any chance to air their ideas. Excessive control by the leaders will definitely breed misuse of power. This may create a perfect environment for high level corruption and misuse of state resources. For example, a president may be tempted to appoint his friends or give grants to their companies. This has a potential impact of breeding distrust among his constituents. Again, the government will find it hand to embrace changes (political and economic) especially in todays turbulent world.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act - 760 Words

History was made as the President of the United States signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law on March 23, 2010. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) delivers access to quality, affordable health care to all Americans. The breakthrough legislation, passed in March of 2010, represents the most significant government expansion and regulatory overhaul of the country’s healthcare system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965 (Dix, 2013). The PPACA promises to reduce health disparities, improve access to preventative services, improve health outcomes and reduce healthcare spending. As stated by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), the PPACA will provide coverage to more than 94 percent of†¦show more content†¦This literature review will describe and discuss the challenges of accessing health care services and how primary care physicians are deeply impacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Access to Q uality and Affordable Health Care in America Presently, access to health care services in the United States is labeled substandard. As explained by the Department of Health and Human Services, access to comprehensive, quality health care services is important for the achievement of health equity and for increasing quality of a healthy life for all. In 2008, the Commonwealth Fund released â€Å"Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the U.S. Health Care†. In this report, they note, minority Americans are more likely to have problems accessing high-quality health care than whites. Considering the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention state that minorities comprise 36.3 percent of the nation’s population, having this much of the populace unhealthy has major implications. Consequentially, minorities are less likely to experience the health outcomes that lead to a better quality of life. Access to health services is key for prevention of disease and disability, detection and treatment of health disorders, improving the quality of life, and overall physical, social and mental health status. With the PPACA allowing unprecedented access to primary care

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Ending Gang And Youth Violence Policy Initiative

1. The Ending Gang and Youth Violence policy initiative is aimed at analysing problems with gangs and find intervention to tackle crime connected to young people. It is focuses on preventing gang violence, finding pathways out, punishing offenders, working as partners with different forces and providing support to individuals who got in to gangs. 2. The policy initiative aimed at tackling gang violence needs not only the police to play their role, but also other public service workers, like teachers, youth workers and multi-agencies. All of them have to work together and share information. The policy claims that to prevent gang violence the police will have to apply fixed custodial sentences for people using a knife to threaten or endanger others. The UK Boarder Agency will also have a role as with the police they need to undertake using immigration powers to deport dangerous gang members who are not UK citizens, bringing Operation Bite in London strategy to successes. When working together all hospital emergency departments will have to share confidential data on knife and gang assaults with the police and other agencies. In addition the possibility may be even a possibility of including hospital data on local crime maps. All of this is just part of the initiative and will affect not only gang members, but the public servi ces too. The police job may become easier as they will work with other services. For example, as the hospitals will provide data to mark on local crimeShow MoreRelatedThe Incarceration Of Minority Youth883 Words   |  4 Pagesadolescent youth and young males in the criminal justice system. For this reason there needs to be interventions available to this population to create a change in society. †¢ The changing number of adolescent and youth minority prisoners : The incarceration of minority youth is at a high as well as the cost for the imprisonment of them in their states, many of their offenses are non-violent. There is a need for initiatives to be created to reduce the numbers of imprisoned youths. Male youth of colorRead More African American Societys Influence2075 Words   |  9 Pages I. Introduction We can begin to draw comparisons and highlight distinctions about the meaning attached to youth violence, from the modern era to present day. Based on this meaning, we are able to understand the myriad of ways delinquent juveniles are affected by certain policies. Specifically, African Americans are over-represented in the juvenile justice system of Cook County, Chicago. Thus, they are a vulnerable population that is singled out by the system, and this further exacerbatesRead MoreGun Policy Research Paper2362 Words   |  10 Pages Policy Paper The City of Stockton, California is a mid-sized city and is located approximately sixty-five miles east of the San Francisco Bay Area. The U.S. Census report of 2010 depicts that Stockton is California’s thirteenth largest city. It has a very diverse population of two hundred ninety-one thousand and seven hundred and seven. About a third of the Stockton population is of Latino or Hispanic origin (Braga 2008, p. 334). The median yearly household income of the residents in StocktonRead MoreJuvenile Prostitution Crimes Essay1076 Words   |  5 Pageswhich prohibited juvenile prostitution almost every were in the country. Today is prohibited in 49 out of 50 states with the exception of Nevada who still promote the adult prostitution legally. We really need to fight with this problem because is ending with our teenager liberty, social moral and is creating hire crimes (rape, muder, kinapping and more). â€Å"It is estimated that there are 60 million survivors of childhood sexual abuse in America today. Child abuse contributes to our overcrowded prisonsRead MoreThe Harmful Effects of Juvenile Prostitution Essay1749 Words   |  7 Pagesneeds, but the true is that our teenagers are becoming slave of the sex industry. Most of the parents today don know that every day our teenagers are in the risk of becoming a new slave of industry. We really need to fight with this problem because is ending with our teenager liberty, social moral and is creating hires crimes. â€Å"It is estimated that there are 60 million survivors of juvenile sexual abuse in America today. Child abuse contributes to our overcrowded prisons as nearly 31% of woman in prisonRead MoreYouth Crime Essay3259 Words   |  14 Pagesï » ¿ Youth Gang Involvement MET CJ/631—Youth Crime Problems Boston University Dr. Frank Carney April 20, 2013 Abstract Within the United States, youth involvement in gangs has become a serious problem for the future safety and security of the United States. The following thesis explores the growing problem of youth involvement in gangs and attempts to understand the growing trend by exploring historical facts and figures, policies and programs. Within the lastRead MoreAristophaness Speech from Platos Symposium2971 Words   |  12 Pagesbrings us together here is a powerful sense of hope, expectation, and possibility for we have seen the capacity of men and boys to change, to care, to cherish, to love passionately, and to work for justice for all. We are outraged by the pandemic of violence women face at the hands of some men, by the relegation of women to second class status, and the continued domination by men of our economies, of our politics, of our social and cultural institutions, in far too many of our homes. We also know thatRead MoreA Modern Day Form Of Slavery Essay2107 Words   |  9 Pagesvictims of trafficking by enhancing criminal penalties under the law as well as made benefits and services to victims available (TVPA, 2000). Since the act’s establishment, the TVPA has been amended 4 times in order to grow with the changing attitudes, policies, and approaches to best combat human trafficking (DeCeoursty, 2016). The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 refueled the United States dedication to sex trafficking by declaring DMST as a threat to national security which transformed the wayRead MoreViolence, Mental, And Mental Health3149 Words   |  13 PagesMonique Nguyen Global Health Paula Palmer 3 December 2014 Violence and mental health in Brazil Today, mental disorders, violence and injuries are more prominent in low- and middle-income countries (Rebeiro, 2013). Violence stems from all age groups and genders, however, Brazil faces disproportionately high rates of violence. Violence is a major contributor to morbidity and individual and collective costs (Reichenheim, 2011). Unfortunately, nearly 90% of people living in Sao Paulo and Rio de JaneiroRead MoreWhat Is A Penal Crisis?2392 Words   |  10 Pagesan everlasting loop within the criminal justice system, with little opportunity to reform. This is the definition of the UK penal crisis. The New Penology Recent decades have shown that an emergence of the ‘New Penology’ will affect contemporary policies in criminal justice. The new language of penology replaces old concepts of focusing on individuals, rehabilitation and reform and instead shifts to an actuarial approach to criminals at an aggregate level. It is no longer significant for the measurement

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Frees John Gardners Grendel Grendel Essay Example For Students

Frees John Gardners Grendel Grendel Essay sJohn Gardners Grendel The archeologists eyes combine the view of the telescope and the view of the microscope. He reconstructs the very distant with the help of the very small. Thornton Wilder These words, uttered by Thornton Wilder regarding his play Our Town express the antithesis of nihilism, a philosophy which stresses the lack of objective truth. Nihilism, as well as existentialism and a host of other philosophies are boldly explored in Grendel, a novel by John Gardner. The antagonist Grendel travels on a journey of self-discovery, eventually becoming a nihilist, only to be gallantly disproved by the hero Beowulf. In the end Gardner proves that the virtues of individuality and meaning triumph over meaningless violence and destruction. While Gardner presents countless philosophies and thoughts in Grendel, the two most prominent are nihilism and existentialism. The monster Grendel begins life as an existentialist. After leaving his mothers cave, he is introduced to a vast, confusing world. As a defense against the rest of the universe, Grendel establishes existentialism as his philosophy. Grendel is initially confused about the things around him, but soon encounters humans, creatures who seem to share a common language and thought. He tries to decipher meaning out of the humans by watching them. Grendel witnesses the early evolution of Hrothgars kingdom, watching them season after season from the high cliff wall (37) conquering each other and other kingdoms, quickly expanding into a powerful empire. In Chapter 5, Grendel falls in the lair of the Dragon. Through his conversation with the Dragon, Grendel is introduced to nihilism. The Dragon it seems, is the ultimate nihilistic entity who knows the beginning, the present, the end . all time, all space. (62, 63) The Dragon believes that all things in the universe will come to an end and are therefore meaningless and discounts existentialism as a philosophy. His final advice to Grendel is to seek out gold and sit on it (74) if for no sake other then doing it. Grendel leaves the Dragons lair with a renewed confidence in himself. Believing the Dragons words to be true, Grendel finds no reason to restrain his inherently destructive desires. Grendel proceeds as a terrible monster, fulfilling all of his evil fantasies. Grendels new found nihilism however, is quickly invalidated by the hero Beowulf, who comes to Hrothgars kingdom after hearing of their trouble with Grendel. The coming of Beowulf is the ultimate abomination of nihilism. While Grendel represents meaningless death and destruction, Beowulf represents regeneration and goodness. While the Dragon instilled in Grendel that all things are meaningless, Beowulf teaches Grendel that where the water was rigid there will be fish and the world will burn green, sperm build again. (170) Thus, Gardner discounts both nihilism and existentialism to be detrimental. Gardner then goes on the describe the evolutionary path of both Grendel and Hrothgars Thanes. From the vantage point of his cliff, Grendel watches the pattern of destruction inflicted by Hrothgar and his men upon other kingdoms as they expand their power and influence. Grendel witnesses on a soft summer night, as many as three mead halls burning at once. (37) Instead of making war on them, Hrothgar sent men to them every three months or so, with heavy wagons and back-slings, to gather their tribute to his greatness. (37) This expansion of power makes Hrothgar into a great king. However, before the days of their greatness, Hrothgar had begun hardly stronger than the others, began to outstrip the rest. Hed shown them the strength of his organization. (37) His seemingly great abilities as king however, are not the only factors that contribute to Hrothgars great reputation. In Chapter 4, the shaper arrives at Hrothgars mead hall. .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287 , .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287 .postImageUrl , .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287 , .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287:hover , .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287:visited , .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287:active { border:0!important; } .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287:active , .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287 .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u0e910a175d8894f536b92d285eaa4287:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Axis of Evil vs. Evil Empire Sample Essay Unlike other poets, the shaper is able to sing of a false past so gloriously as to have it be true. By doing this, he encourages the Thanes to live-up to their false glory. Some may say that shaper is solely responsible for the advancement of the Thanes into the great kingdom. By Chapter 4, even Grendel is convinced that the lies the shaper sings of are true. This is evident when he says I knew them, had watched them; yet the things he said seemed true. (47) The shaper embodies the summit of the Thanes greatness. His death later brings great sadness throughout the kingdom. The people listen silent and solemn to the old shapers song on the young mans lips. (147) Without the shaper to sing lies of his greatness, Hrothgar is no longer a great king. The Thanes have already conquered as much as they can, and the kingdom is now in a state of maintaining its power. Overall sadness at the death of the shaper, lack of motivation and threats upon the thrown drive the kingdom into a period of decline. Hrothgar is no longer the proactive young king he used to be. Instead, puffy-eyed, he gets up, and in a kind of stupor goes to the meadhall to piss. (136)

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Baseball Magic and its Relation With Other Rituals for Luck Essays

Baseball Magic and its Relation With Other Rituals for Luck Essays Baseball Magic and its Relation With Other Rituals for Luck Paper Baseball Magic and its Relation With Other Rituals for Luck Paper The enlightening article â€Å"Baseball Magic† by George Gmelch (1992) relates the rituals practiced by ballplayers before, during, and after a baseball game with the cultural practices found in different cultures across the world. One such culture, as mentioned by Gmelch (1992), is practiced by the Trobriand Islanders who perform certain rituals in order to bring luck to their daily catch (of fish). Relating it to baseball, the two places where the Trobriand Islanders fished are associated with the three important aspects of the game: pitching, hitting, and fielding. In that sense, lagoon fishing is   associated with fielding since it uses skill rather than luck, while open-sea fishing is associated with pitching and hitting since it relies more on luck. Ballplayers practice different rituals that they assume to have brought luck upon them in the past, when they had a good game. Due to the results of each game, Gmelch (1992) claims that ballplayers would ponder on what they might have done that brought them good or bad luck, and later on, they would turn it into a ritual or cast them off as a taboo. They would also practice apparel fetishes that they believe would bring them immense luck. It has also been mentioned that according to B.F. Skinner, these attitudes and practices stem from the results of each game, wherein ballplayers would associate their performance with their daily routines (Gmelch, 1992). The article primarily relates the importance of cultural practices across the globe to the people who practice them. The game of baseball was given an example to associate the rituals importance for the players who perform them with these cultural practices. Baseball is a game of both skill and luck wherein the players would rely more on the latter rather than the former. These rituals give them strength and confidence, intensifying their skills. Similar to these ballplayers are the warriors who practice a certain ritual to provide them with better protection and courage in battle. The article also gives a detailed example of the importance of rituals for people who practice them. Certainly, these rituals intensify the attitudes like confidence and courage. However, the article could have also provided an opposing argument to the whole topic, as it could also mean that these rituals are just mere exaggerations of the ballplayers superstitious mentality about luck. These rituals may have all been their learned set of skills that provide them with the results that they want. With an opposing argument, the whole article could have further explained the importance of such rituals for players, as well as for the whole culture of baseball and its fans. Reference Gmelch, G. (2000). Baseball magic. McGraw-Hill Contemporary Learning Series. Retrieved June 8, 2009, from

Friday, February 21, 2020

Critical analysis and evaluation of capital punishment as a method of Research Paper

Critical analysis and evaluation of capital punishment as a method of crime control in the U.S.A - Research Paper Example ............................4 B. Contemporary purpose†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦4 II. Discussion A. Deterrence†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦5 B. Brutalisation Effect†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.6 C. Controversy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..7 III. Conclusion A. Capital Punishment and Crime Control†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9 References†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.10 I. Introduction A. Capital Punishment With every judicial punishment, people will have an issue with the philosophical, religious or ethical values of a person. The implementation of the new judgement system or consideration of the old one, each country will take plenty of time as they need to know about the cause and the effects of the law on the society. According to Hodgkinson & Schabas (2004), across much of the world, capital punishment remains extraordinarily flexible instrument and symbol of public policy. Though it was introduced to create an environment free of crime, the issue with it is increasing these days. Capital punishment would clearly work as a special deterrent. But it may lead to brutalisation effects in the society. While the subject of capital punishment has always involved the students of penal policy and criminology, it has also long been documented as spanning the spectrum of political philosophy (Nisbett, 1993). The issue of capital punishment is at the spirit of defining the kind of humanity essential for its citizen. As Hodgkinson & Schabas (2004) observes, while certain fundamental norms which restrict the application of capital punishment have become relatively well accepted, the question of elimination has become more and more controversial within for a such as the General Assembly of the United Nations. Global perspectives allow opportunity to trace the occurrence of the death penalty and the application of capital punishment with respect to the changeover from customary to the contemporary societies. For example, in the Chinese criminal justice system, with its unmistakable dependence upon the death penalty, it bears the impression of many conventional Chinese legal norms and values (Nisbett, 1993). B. Contemporary Purpose Capital punishments are mostly used for drug related offences. They are also used in cases of juvenile disorders and serial killers. Killing of a single serial killer or a psychopath would certainly deter various other crimes caused by them (, 2013). Capital punishments have received much publicity and it has welcomed lots of criticisms. II. Discussion A. Deterrence Considering the article on abolition of capital punishment by Amnesty International (2013), capital punishment expands on disagreement of four points in the non-governmental organization’s operation for the capital punishment abolishment: Discrimination, Deterrence, Cruelty and Irrevocability. It draws attention to the discrimination done between the minorities and the upper class people. The deterrence from crime, a factor argued by advocates of the death penalty, is not promoted by capital punishment. The article hence tries to egg on the entire abolishment. 1 Many political leaders also regard deterrence of crimes as the only